Idiopathic renal hypouricemia is a hereditary disease characterized by abnormally high renal uric acid clearance. Most patients are clinically silent, but acute renal failure (ARF), urolithiasis, or hematuria may develop. A defect in the SLC22A12 gene, which encodes the renal uric acid transporter, URAT1, is the known major cause of this disorder. We performed a mutational analysis of the SLC22A12 gene in five Korean patients with idiopathic renal hypouricemia in this study. Two patients presented with microscopic hematuria, one with uric acid urolithiasis, and one with exercise-induced ARF. One patient was asymptomatic. Three different mutations, W258X, R90H and R477H, were detected in four of the patients. However, no mutation was found in the fifth ARF patient. This is the first study of SLC22A12 mutations in a country other than Japan. W258X was found to be the predominant SLC22A12 mutation in Korean renal hypouricemia patients, as has been reported in Japan.