Pain predicts non-adherence to pap smear screening among middle-aged African American women

Prev Med. 2005 Aug;41(2):439-45. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.11.021.


Background: Middle-aged African American women have the highest incidence and mortality of invasive cervical cancer in the United States and the lowest adherence to pap smear screening.

Methods: In 2001, we identified factors associated with non-adherence to screening recommendations using three focus group interviews and subsequently developed a questionnaire administered to 144 African American women aged 45 to 65 years.

Results: The perception that the Pap test was painful was associated with non-adherence to screening recommendations (OR = 4.78; 95%CI: 1.67-13.7). Difficulty to pay for the office visit coupled with perceived pain was associated with a nearly sixfold increase in risk of non-adherence (OR = 5.8; 95%CI: 2.8-15.5). Previously identified barriers to screening including lower education and socioeconomic status, poor access to care, knowledge of and exposure to known risk factors of invasive cervical cancer, cancer fatalism, and perceived racism were not independently associated with non-adherence.

Conclusions: These data suggest that, among middle-aged African American women, future interventions addressing pain during a Pap test will likely increase acceptability of and adherence to cervical cancer screening. Pain could be addressed either by providing information during the pap test and/or using smaller lubricated speculums.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • African Americans* / statistics & numerical data
  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain / etiology*
  • Papanicolaou Test*
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care*
  • United States
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Vaginal Smears / adverse effects*
  • Vaginal Smears / statistics & numerical data*