Brisk walking, fitness, and cardiovascular risk: a randomized controlled trial in primary care

Prev Med. 2005 Aug;41(2):622-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.11.030.


Study objective: To examine the effects of 30 min of self-paced, non-supervised, brisk walking, 5 days per week on the health and fitness of people aged 50-65 years.

Design: Randomized controlled trial. Members of the intervention group (n = 21) were directed to walk briskly for 30 min, 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. Individuals were given the choice to complete the 30 min of walking in one session or in shorter bouts of no less than 10 min. They were asked to record in a diary the time spent walking and the number of steps taken during a single walk using a pedometer. Participants in the control group (n = 10) were asked to maintain their habitual lifestyle and not change their activity or dietary habits. Measurements of body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, functional capacity, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoprotein subfractions were taken before and after the program. Changes in 10-year risk estimate for coronary heart disease and stroke were calculated using Framingham risk equations.

Setting: Three urban general practices patients: 31 healthy, sedentary 50- to 65-year-old participants recruited following contact by their general practitioner.

Main results: The mean time spent walking by the intervention group was 27.72 (+/-9.79) min/day: their adherence to the protocol was 90.3%. Significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reduction in stroke risk, and increased functional capacity were found within the walking group between baseline and 12-week measurements. No changes were found in these parameters within the control group. Significant reductions in 10-year risk of CHD were observed in both groups. No significant changes were found in lipid levels or anthropometric measurements in either group.

Conclusions: The study provides evidence for the benefit to fitness and cardiovascular risk of the "30-min brisk walking, 5 days a week" message to people aged 50-65 years who participated in an unsupervised home-based walking program. Further study to overcome the problem of poor recruitment and determine the minimum effective dose of exercise to improve cardiovascular risk prediction scores is required.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Physical Fitness*
  • Primary Health Care
  • Risk
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Walking*