Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. The basic concept of CAD is to provide a computer output as a second opinion to assist radiologists' image interpretation by improving the accuracy and consistency of radiological diagnosis and also by reducing the image reading time. In this article, a number of CAD schemes are presented, with emphasis on potential clinical applications. These schemes include: (1) detection and classification of lung nodules on digital chest radiographs; (2) detection of nodules in low dose CT; (3) distinction between benign and malignant nodules on high resolution CT; (4) usefulness of similar images for distinction between benign and malignant lesions; (5) quantitative analysis of diffuse lung diseases on high resolution CT; and (6) detection of intracranial aneurysms in magnetic resonance angiography. Because CAD can be applied to all imaging modalities, all body parts and all kinds of examinations, it is likely that CAD will have a major impact on medical imaging and diagnostic radiology in the 21st century.