Objective: Obesity is linked to the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Markers of chronic subclinical inflammation such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are closely related to insulin resistance and obesity. Recent evidence suggests that adiponectin, a protein whose circulating levels are decreased in obesity, has anti-inflammatory properties, and also appears to enhance potently insulin action and therefore appears to function as a signal produced by adipose tissue that influences whole-body glucose metabolism.
Subjects and methods: We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal association of adiponectin with CRP and IL-6 in 41 morbidly obese women with different stages of glucose tolerance before and 17 months after significant weight loss induced by gastric surgery. Adiponectin was measured by RIA. CRP and IL-6 were determined by commercially available ELISA systems.
Results: Weight loss induced a significant shift from T2D (preoperatively 34% vs postoperatively 2%) to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (37% preoperatively vs 30% postoperatively) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (29% preoperatively vs 68% postoperatively). Preoperatively adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with CRP (r=-0.59, P<0.0006), IL-6 (r=-0.42, P<0.02) and leukocytes (r=-0.41, P<0.007). After gastroplasty, adiponectin concentrations increased significantly (15.4+/-8.2 vs 19.8+/-6.2 microg/ml, P<0.005) associated with changes of weight and body mass index (r=-0.45, P<0.007; r=-0.35, P<0.04). Furthermore, preoperative CRP was significantly associated with changes in adiponectin even after adjustment for sex, age, preoperative body mass index (BMI) impaired glucose metabolism and changes in BMI and changes in BMI (standardized beta 0.61, P=0.005).
Conclusion: Levels of adiponectin, which are associated with markers of chronic subclinical inflammation, could be significantly increased after weight loss in morbidly obese patients. This increase was more pronounced in patients with NGT compared to those with T2D and IGT. Preoperative levels of CRP are predictive for changes of adiponectin after weight loss.