Allogeneic dendritic cell vaccination against metastatic renal cell carcinoma with or without cyclophosphamide

Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2005 Jul;54(7):663-70. doi: 10.1007/s00262-004-0629-2. Epub 2004 Dec 17.


In this phase I/II study, we evaluated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of allogeneic dendritic cells (DCs) with or without cyclophosphamide in the treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Immunomagnetic beads were used to isolate CD14(+) monocytes from healthy donor leukapheresis products, and CD83(+) antigen-pulsed monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) loaded with tumor lysate and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) were generated. Twelve patients were treated with allogeneic moDCs alone, while ten patients also received cyclophosphamide on days 4 and 3 prior to vaccination. Of the 22 patients enrolled, 20 received full treatment consisting of at least three vaccinations at monthly intervals. Two mixed responses with substantial tumor regression were observed. In 3 patients, disease stabilization occurred, in 13 patients disease progressed and 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Overall, immune responses against KLH and tumor lysate were weak or absent; however, the strongest increases in antigen-independent and KLH-specific responses were observed in the 2 patients with mixed responses. In addition, 1 of them showed a substantial increase in oncofetal antigen (OFA)-specific IFN-gamma production. Importantly, the 2 mixed responders and 1 patient with stable disease belonged to the cyclophosphamide group. Median overall survival in the cyclophosphamide group was 23.2 and 20.3 months in the group that received allogeneic moDCs alone. Allogeneic immunotherapy with moDCs is feasible and well tolerated. However, the immunogenicity of allogeneic moDCs is clearly less pronounced than that of autologous moDC immunotherapy. Cyclophosphamide may have the capacity to augment DC-induced antitumor immunity.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antigens, CD / metabolism
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use*
  • Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / immunology
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / therapy*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use*
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Hemocyanins / genetics
  • Hemocyanins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy*
  • Interferon-gamma / metabolism
  • Kidney Neoplasms / immunology
  • Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • Kidney Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Leukapheresis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monocytes / cytology
  • Monocytes / drug effects
  • Monocytes / metabolism
  • Survival Rate
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology
  • Transplantation, Autologous
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Vaccination


  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • oncofetal antigens
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Hemocyanins
  • keyhole-limpet hemocyanin