The maintenance of phospholipid asymmetry in membrane bilayers is a paradigm in cell biology. However, the mechanisms and proteins involved in phospholipid translocation are still poorly understood. Members of the type 4 subfamily of P-type ATPases have been implicated in the translocation of phospholipids from the outer to the inner leaflet of membrane bilayers. In humans, several inherited disorders have been identified which are associated with loci harboring type 4 P-type ATPase genes. Up to now, one inherited disorder, Byler disease or progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1), has been directly linked to mutations in a type 4 P-type ATPase gene. How the absence of an aminophospholipid translocase activity relates to this severe disease is, however, still unclear. Studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have recently identified important roles for type 4 P-type ATPases in intracellular membrane- and protein-trafficking events. These processes require an (amino)phospholipid translocase activity to initiate budding or fusion of membrane vesicles from or with other membranes. The studies in yeast have greatly contributed to our cell biological insight in membrane dynamics and intracellular-trafficking events; if this knowledge can be translated to mammalian cells and organs, it will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms which underlie severe inherited human diseases such as Byler disease.