In vitro infection of bovine cells of many origins with the cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus (cpBVDV) results in the induction of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta), whereas noncytopathogenic BVDV (ncpBVDV) isolates have been shown not to induce IFN-alpha/beta in vitro. Similarly, cpBVDV induces IFN-alpha/beta in the early bovine fetus, but ncpBVDV does not. However, acute infection of naive cattle with ncpBVDV results in IFN-alpha/beta production. In this study, we identified and characterized a minor population of cells, present in lymph nodes that produce IFN-alpha in response to ncpBVDV. These cells expressed the myeloid markers CD14, CD11b, and CD172a but did not express CD4 and CD45RB. We also established that these cells produced IFN-alpha in the absence of detectable productive infection.