Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus

J Virol. 2005 Jun;79(12):7845-51. doi: 10.1128/JVI.79.12.7845-7851.2005.


The use of classical smallpox vaccines based on vaccinia virus (VV) is associated with severe complications in both naive and immune individuals. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated replication-deficient strain of VV, has been proven to be safe in humans and immunocompromised animals, and its efficacy against smallpox is currently being addressed. Here we directly compare the efficacies of MVA alone and in combination with classical VV-based vaccines in a cynomolgus macaque monkeypox model. The MVA-based smallpox vaccine protected macaques against a lethal respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus and is therefore an important candidate for the protection of humans against smallpox.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Immunization
  • Lung / pathology
  • Lung / virology
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Monkeypox / pathology
  • Monkeypox / prevention & control*
  • Monkeypox / virology
  • Monkeypox virus / immunology
  • Monkeypox virus / pathogenicity*
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / pathology
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / prevention & control*
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / virology
  • Skin / pathology
  • Skin / virology
  • Smallpox Vaccine / administration & dosage
  • Smallpox Vaccine / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Vaccinia virus / genetics
  • Vaccinia virus / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Smallpox Vaccine