Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) is caused by a lack of functional lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). Affected individuals store glycogen in lysosomes beginning during gestation, ultimately resulting in fatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and respiratory failure. We have assessed the utility of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors to restore GAA activity in vivo in a mouse model of GSDII (Gaa(-/-)). A single systemic administration of a rAAV serotype 1 (rAAV1) vector to neonate animals resulted in restored cardiac GAA activity to 6.4 times the normal level (mean=641+/-190% of normal (Gaa(+/+)) levels with concomitant glycogen clearance) at 11 months postinjection. Greater than 20% of normal levels of GAA activity were also observed in the diaphragm and quadriceps muscles. Furthermore, functional correction of the soleus skeletal muscle was also observed compared to age-matched untreated Gaa(-/-) control animals. These results demonstrate that rAAV1 vectors can mediate sustained therapeutic levels of correction of both skeletal and cardiac muscles in a model of fatal cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy.