X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia as a tangential migration disorder causing intractable epilepsy: proposal for a new term, "interneuronopathy"

J Child Neurol. 2005 Apr;20(4):392-7. doi: 10.1177/08830738050200042001.


X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia is the first human disorder in which deficient tangential migration in the brain has been demonstrated. Male patients with X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia show intractable seizures, especially clonic convulsions or myoclonus from the first day of life, but neither infantile spasms nor hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalograms so far. Brain magnetic resonance imaging shows anterior pachygyria and posterior agyria with a mildly thick cortex, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and dysplastic basal ganglia. ARX, a paired-class homeobox gene with four polyalanine sequences, is a responsible gene for X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia. The brain of Arx knockout mice shows aberrant tangential migration and differentiation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons. In human X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia, a neuropathologic study has suggested a loss of interneurons. Meanwhile, polyalanine expansion of ARX causes symptomatic or nonsymptomatic West's syndrome and nonsyndromic mental retardation. The striking epileptogenicity of X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia and West's syndrome associated with ARX mutations i s considered to be caused by a disorder of interneurons involving a tangentialmigration disorder. We propose "interneuronopathy" as a term for this.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Movement / physiology*
  • Cerebral Cortex / abnormalities*
  • Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / complications*
  • Genitalia, Male / abnormalities*
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Interneurons / physiology*
  • Male
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Prognosis
  • Spasms, Infantile / etiology*
  • Spasms, Infantile / physiopathology
  • Spasms, Infantile / therapy
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • ARX protein, human
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Transcription Factors