Influence of administration route on tumor uptake and biodistribution of etoposide loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in Dalton's lymphoma tumor bearing mice

J Control Release. 2005 Jul 20;105(3):185-98. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2005.02.028.


The study evaluates the capability of tripalmitin nanoparticles in enhancing the tumor uptake of etoposide, and the influence of administration route on the biodistribution and tumor uptake of etoposide loaded tripalmitin (ETPL) nanoparticles in Dalton's lymphoma tumor bearing mice. ETPL nanoparticles were prepared by melt-emulsification and high pressure homogenization followed by the spray drying of nanodispersion. Characterization of the nanoparticles was done by particle size analysis, zeta potential measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The size of ETPL nanoparticles was 387 nm and possessed negative charge. Etoposide and ETPL nanoparticles were radiolabeled with 99mTc with high labeling efficiency. The labeled complexes showed good in vitro stability in the presence of DTPA/cysteine and serum stability. Etoposide and ETPL nanoparticles were injected by subcutaneous, intravenous or intraperitoneal routes and their biodistribution and tumor uptake were determined. Subcutaneous injection reduced the distribution of ETPL nanoparticles to all the tissues studied whereas after intraperitoneal injection, the distribution of ETPL nanoparticles to tissues was higher than free etoposide. The intravenous injection resulted in lower concentrations of ETPL nanoparticles in the organs of RES compared to free etoposide. ETPL nanoparticles experienced significantly high brain distribution after intraperitoneal injection indicating its potential use in targeting etoposide to brain tumors. After subcutaneous injection, the tissue distribution of ETPL nanoparticles increased with time indicating their accumulation at the injection site for a longer time. The tumor uptake of both etoposide and ETPL nanoparticles was significantly high after subcutaneous injection (P<0.001) compared to the other routes of administration. The tumor concentration of ETPL nanoparticles after subcutaneous injection was 59 folds higher than that obtained after intravenous and 8 folds higher than after intraperitoneal route at 24 h post-injection. The tumor concentration of ETPL nanoparticles increased with time after subcutaneous injection indicating the slower and progressive penetration from the injection site into the tumor. The study signifies the advantage of incorporating etoposide into tripalmitin nanoparticles in controlling its biodistribution and enhancing the tumor uptake by several folds. The study also reveals that, of the three routes investigated, subcutaneous injection is the route of preference for facilitating high tumor uptake and retention and is likely to have greater antitumor effect resulting in tumor regression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacokinetics*
  • Chelating Agents / pharmacology
  • Cysteine / pharmacology
  • Drug Carriers
  • Etoposide / administration & dosage*
  • Etoposide / pharmacokinetics*
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intraperitoneal
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Liposomes
  • Lymphoma / diagnostic imaging
  • Lymphoma / drug therapy*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Palmitic Acid
  • Particle Size
  • Pentetic Acid / pharmacology
  • Radionuclide Imaging
  • Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics
  • Tin Compounds / pharmacology
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Chelating Agents
  • Drug Carriers
  • Liposomes
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Tin Compounds
  • stannous chloride
  • Palmitic Acid
  • Etoposide
  • Pentetic Acid
  • Cysteine