The social recognition paradigm was used to investigate the effect of trimethyltin (TMT) in adult male rats. Consequently, the effect of chronic oxiracetam (OXI) treatment in TMT impaired animals was evaluated. In all experiments, a behavioural testing was performed 3 weeks after TMT administration. Experiment 1: A single TMT oral dose, 5 and 7.5 but not 2.5mg/kg, impaired the natural ability of the adults to recognize a juvenile conspecific that they encountered 30 min before. The dose of 5mg/kg TMT was chosen to be used in subsequent experiments. Experiment 2: Chronic OXI pre-+post-treatment, daily 3 or 30 mg/kg sc for 7 days before and 7 days after the insult, protected the adults against recognition deficit produced by TMT. Experiment 3: OXI pre- but not post-treatment (always 3 and 30 mg/kg) had beneficial effects on the social recognition. The findings suggest that social recognition ability of adult male rats pre-treated sufficiently long with OXI is resistant to the neurotoxicity effect of TMT.