Snake venoms and coagulopathy

Toxicon. 2005 Jun 15;45(8):951-67. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2005.02.030. Epub 2005 Apr 12.


Snakebite affects around 2.5 million humans annually, with greater than 100,000 deaths. Coagulopathy is a significant cause of both morbidity and mortality in these patients, either directly, or indirectly. This paper reviews clinical aspects of snakebite coagulopathy, including types of coagulopathy (procoagulant, fibrinogen clotting, fibrinolytic, platelet-active, anticoagulant, thrombotic, haemorrhagic), diagnosis and treatment. Examples of clinical laboratory findings in selected types of snakebite coagulopathy are presented. Where available, antivenom is the most effective treatment, while standard treatments for other forms of coagulopathy, such as factor replacement therapy and heparin, are either ineffective or dangerous in snakebite coagulopathy, except in specific situations.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Animals
  • Antivenins / therapeutic use*
  • Blood Coagulation / drug effects
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders / chemically induced*
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Blood Coagulation Disorders / therapy*
  • Blood Platelets / metabolism
  • Fibrinogen / metabolism
  • Models, Biological
  • Snake Bites / therapy*
  • Snake Venoms / metabolism
  • Snake Venoms / toxicity*
  • Snakes*


  • Antivenins
  • Snake Venoms
  • Fibrinogen