Open fenestrations are a conspicuous feature of sinusoidal endothelial cells and allow free movement of plasma into the space of Disse. In hepatic fibrosis, the number of fenestrations decreases as interstitial collagen increases in the liver, a change that correlates with deposition of extracellular matrix in the space of Disse. In this study, the possibility of a causal relationship between altered fenestral morphology and perisinusoidal matrix has been examined by culturing rat sinusoidal endothelial cells on individual matrix proteins or on a native matrix consisting of human amniotic membrane with interstitial collagen (types I and III) on one side and basement membrane proteins (collagen types IV and V and laminin) on the other. Under culture conditions, individual components of the extracellular matrix failed to maintain fenestrations. A basement-membranelike gel matrix derived from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor war similarly ineffective. Fenestral density and porosity (percentage of cell surface occupied by fenestrations) were significantly enhanced, however, when endothelial cells were cultured on the basement-membrane side of human amnion. These data suggest that support of endothelial fenestrations requires a complex matrix. In particular, physiologically derived basement membrane maintains fenestrations, whereas interstitial collagen matrix does not. The loss of fenestrations associated with hepatic fibrosis may be related in part to an accumulation of interstitial collagens in the space of Disse.