High surface energy enhances cell response to titanium substrate microstructure

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2005 Jul 1;74(1):49-58. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.30320.


Titanium (Ti) is used for implantable devices because of its biocompatible oxide surface layer. TiO2 surfaces that have a complex microtopography increase bone-to-implant contact and removal torque forces in vivo and induce osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Studies examining osteoblast response to controlled surface chemistries indicate that hydrophilic surfaces are osteogenic, but TiO2 surfaces produced until now exhibit low surface energy because of adsorbed hydrocarbons and carbonates from the ambient atmosphere or roughness induced hydrophobicity. Novel hydroxylated/hydrated Ti surfaces were used to retain high surface energy of TiO2. Osteoblasts grown on this modified surface exhibited a more differentiated phenotype characterized by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin and generated an osteogenic microenvironment through higher production of PGE2 and TGF-beta1. Moreover, 1alpha,25OH2D3 increased these effects in a manner that was synergistic with high surface energy. This suggests that increased bone formation observed on modified Ti surfaces in vivo is due in part to stimulatory effects of high surface energy on osteoblasts.

MeSH terms

  • Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism
  • Calcitriol / pharmacology
  • Cell Count
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Dinoprostone / metabolism
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Humans
  • Osteoblasts / chemistry
  • Osteoblasts / physiology*
  • Osteoblasts / ultrastructure
  • Osteocalcin / metabolism
  • Phenotype
  • Prostheses and Implants*
  • Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission
  • Surface Properties
  • Titanium / chemistry*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1


  • TGFB1 protein, human
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1
  • Osteocalcin
  • titanium dioxide
  • Titanium
  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Calcitriol
  • Dinoprostone