The epidemiology of diabetes in Mexico is reviewed. In less than four decades, diabetes has become the main health problem in Mexico. It is the principal cause of death in women and the second among men since the year 2000. It is the primary cause of premature retirement, blindness, and kidney failure. By the year 2025, close to 11.7 million Mexicans are expected to be diagnosed with diabetes. In the year 2000, diabetes was the 11th most frequent cause of hospitalization but the second most common cause of hospital mortality. The number of cases reported in children has also increased since 1995. The results of population-based, nationwide surveys have detected a 25% increment over a 7-year period. Fourteen percent of people with diabetes are <40 years of age, and a large proportion of patients have other conditions that determine the appearance of macrovascular complications and kidney failure. In addition, many cases do not reach treatment goals. In conclusion, the growing number of cases and the significant health burden imposed on affected subjects makes diabetes a disease that needs to be prevented. Well-planned strategies are urgently needed to modify the lifestyle of the population and to increase their physical activity. In addition, an enormous effort will be required to educate the population and physicians to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with diabetes.