Driving midgut-specific expression and secretion of a foreign protein in transgenic mosquitoes with AgAper1 regulatory elements

Insect Mol Biol. 2005 Jun;14(3):271-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2004.00557.x.


The Anopheles gambiae adult peritrophic matrix protein 1 (AgAper1) regulatory elements were used to drive the expression of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a protein known to disrupt malaria parasite development in mosquitoes. These AgAper1 regulatory elements were sufficient to promote the accumulation of PLA2 in midgut epithelial cells before a blood meal and its release into the lumen upon blood ingestion. Plasmodium berghei oocyst formation was reduced by approximately 80% (74-91% range) in transgenic mosquitoes. Blood-seeking behaviour and survival of AgAper1-PLA2 transgenic mosquitoes were comparable to sibling wild-type mosquitoes, while fertility was substantially lower. Ultrastructural studies suggest that decreased fitness is a consequence of internal damage to midgut epithelial cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified / genetics
  • Animals, Genetically Modified / metabolism*
  • Anopheles / genetics*
  • Anopheles / metabolism*
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism*
  • Digestive System / metabolism
  • Digestive System / ultrastructure
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Fertility / genetics
  • Insect Proteins / genetics
  • Insect Proteins / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid*


  • Aper1 protein, Anopheles gambiae
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Insect Proteins