Antisecretory Factor (AF) is a protein that has been implicated in the suppression of intestinal hypersecretion and inflammation. Intestinal secretion and inflammation are partly under local and central neural control raising the possibility that AF might exert its action by modulating neural signaling. In the present study we have investigated whether AF can modulate central synaptic transmission. Evoked glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmissions were investigated using extracellular recordings in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from adult rats. AF (0.5 microg/ml) suppressed GABA(A)-mediated synaptic transmission by about 40% while having no effect on glutamatergic transmission. Per oral administration of cholera toxin as well as feeding of rats with a diet containing hydrothermally processed cereals, known to upregulate endogenous AF plasma activity, mimicked the effect of exogenously administered AF on hippocampal GABAergic transmission. Our results identify AF as a neuromodulator and further raise the possibility that the hippocampus and AF are involved in a gut-brain loop controlling intestinal secretion and inflammation.