Defensive medicine among high-risk specialist physicians in a volatile malpractice environment

JAMA. 2005 Jun 1;293(21):2609-17. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.21.2609.


Context: How often physicians alter their clinical behavior because of the threat of malpractice liability, termed defensive medicine, and the consequences of those changes, are central questions in the ongoing medical malpractice reform debate.

Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of defensive medicine among physicians practicing in high-liability specialties during a period of substantial instability in the malpractice environment.

Design, setting, and participants: Mail survey of physicians in 6 specialties at high risk of litigation (emergency medicine, general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and radiology) in Pennsylvania in May 2003.

Main outcome measures: Number of physicians in each specialty reporting defensive medicine or changes in scope of practice and characteristics of defensive medicine (assurance and avoidance behavior).

Results: A total of 824 physicians (65%) completed the survey. Nearly all (93%) reported practicing defensive medicine. "Assurance behavior" such as ordering tests, performing diagnostic procedures, and referring patients for consultation, was very common (92%). Among practitioners of defensive medicine who detailed their most recent defensive act, 43% reported using imaging technology in clinically unnecessary circumstances. Avoidance of procedures and patients that were perceived to elevate the probability of litigation was also widespread. Forty-two percent of respondents reported that they had taken steps to restrict their practice in the previous 3 years, including eliminating procedures prone to complications, such as trauma surgery, and avoiding patients who had complex medical problems or were perceived as litigious. Defensive practice correlated strongly with respondents' lack of confidence in their liability insurance and perceived burden of insurance premiums.

Conclusion: Defensive medicine is highly prevalent among physicians in Pennsylvania who pay the most for liability insurance, with potentially serious implications for cost, access, and both technical and interpersonal quality of care.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Defensive Medicine* / economics
  • Defensive Medicine* / statistics & numerical data
  • Defensive Medicine* / trends
  • Emergency Medicine / economics
  • Emergency Medicine / statistics & numerical data
  • Emergency Medicine / trends
  • General Surgery / economics
  • General Surgery / statistics & numerical data
  • General Surgery / trends
  • Gynecology / economics
  • Gynecology / statistics & numerical data
  • Gynecology / trends
  • Health Care Surveys
  • Humans
  • Insurance, Liability
  • Neurosurgery / economics
  • Neurosurgery / statistics & numerical data
  • Neurosurgery / trends
  • Obstetrics / economics
  • Obstetrics / statistics & numerical data
  • Obstetrics / trends
  • Orthopedics / economics
  • Orthopedics / statistics & numerical data
  • Orthopedics / trends
  • Pennsylvania
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians' / economics
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians' / trends
  • Radiology / economics
  • Radiology / statistics & numerical data
  • Radiology / trends
  • Regression Analysis
  • Specialties, Surgical* / economics
  • Specialties, Surgical* / statistics & numerical data
  • Specialties, Surgical* / trends
  • Surveys and Questionnaires