Francisella tularensis is a Gram negative intracellular pathogen that causes the highly debilitating or fatal disease tularemia. F. tularensis can infect a wide range of animals and can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, the most common being by the bite of an infected insect or arthropod vector. The attenuated F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) has been used previously under investigational new drug status to vaccinate at-risk individuals. However the history of the strain and lack of knowledge regarding the basis of attenuation has so far prevented its licensing. Therefore the focus of current research is on producing a new vaccine against tularemia that would be suitable for licensing.