This review gives a brief overview of the main types of dementia and summarizes current thinking on the relationship between nutritional-related factors and disorders, and dementia. Dementia is a multi-factor pathological condition, and nutrition is one factor that may play a role on its onset and progression. An optimal intake of nutrients doesn't protect people from dementia. However, studies in this area show that inadequate dietary habits, which are of particular concern in elderly populations, may increase the risk of developing a number of age-related diseases, including disorders of impaired cognitive function. They show that a deficiency in essential nutrients, such as certain B complex vitamins, can result in hyperhomocysteinemia, a well-known risk factor for atherosclerosis and recently associated with cognitive impairment in old age. A deficiency of antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, and beta-carotene, as well as nutrition-related disorders like hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes, may also have some role in cognitive impairment. These factors can be present for a long time before cognitive impairment becomes evident, therefore they could be potentially detected and corrected in a timely manner.