Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), an autoimmune disease caused by sensitization of platelets by autoantibodies leading to platelet destruction, has been associated with some infectious agents, including Helicobacter pylori. The study by Suzuki et al., published in this issue, provides further evidence of the role of H. pylori infection in the pathogenesis of ITP, as confirmed by the increase in the platelet count in patients with ITP, following H. pylori eradication. Interestingly, H. pylori infection has also been shown to play a role in other diseases in which autoimmune mechanisms may be predominant, such as acne rosacea, idiopathic chronic urticaria, and atherosclerosis. While H. pylori eradication is usually recommended in patients with gastric diseases, there are no specific indications for extraalimentary diseases. In the light of the recent findings, a revision of the current guidelines for the management of H. pylori infection may be needed.