Modulation of urinary excretion of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) and oxidative DNA damage biomarker, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were assessed in urine samples collected from a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled phase IIa chemoprevention trial with GTP in 124 individuals. These individuals were sero-positive for both HBsAg and aflatoxin-albumin adducts, and took GTP capsules daily at doses of 500 mg, 1000 mg or a placebo for 3 months. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected before the intervention and at the first and third month of the study. Urinary excretion of 8-OHdG and GTP components was measured by HPLC-CoulArray electrochemical detection. The baseline levels of 8-OHdG and GTP components among the three groups showed homogeneity (P > 0.70), and a non-significant fluctuation was observed in the placebo group over the 3 months (P > 0.30). In GTP-treated groups, epigallocatechin (EGC) and epicatechin (EC) levels displayed significant and dose-dependent increases in both the 500 mg group and 1000 mg group (P < 0.05). The 8-OHdG levels did not differ between the three groups at the 1 month collection, with medians of 1.83, 2.08 and 1.86 ng/mg-creatinine for placebo, 500 and 1000 mg group, respectively (P = 0.999). At the end of the 3 months' intervention, 8-OHdG levels decreased significantly in both GTP-treated groups, with medians of 2.02, 1.03 and 1.15 ng/mg-creatinine for placebo, 500 mg and 1000 mg group, respectively (P = 0.007). These results suggest that urinary excretions of EGC and EC can serve as practical biomarkers for green tea consumption in human populations. The results also suggest that chemoprevention with GTP is effective in diminishing oxidative DNA damage.