Cyclic GMP is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger produced by guanylyl cyclases (GCs). The enterotoxin/guanylin receptor type membrane GC (designated as GC-C in mammals) is activated by exogenous ligands such as heat-stable enterotoxins (STa), small peptides secreted by some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli which cause severe secretory diarrhea and also activated by endogenous ligands such as guanylin and uroguanylin. The STa/guanylin receptor type membrane GC, as well as other type membrane GCs, is composed of an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular region comprising a kinase-like domain and a catalytic domain. The STa/guanylin receptor type membrane GC is identified in various vertebrates including fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and birds, implying that it serves some important and undefined physiological roles in the intestine of non-mammalian vertebrates, e.g. the regulation of water and salt absorption. In mammals, only a single membrane GC (GC-C) is known to be the STa/guanylin receptor. On the contrary, two membrane GC cDNAs are cloned from the intestine of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (GC-C1 and GC-C2) and the medaka fish Oryzias latipes (OlGC6 and OlGC9). OlGC6 and OlGC9 are structurally distinct and show different ligand responsibility. Accumulated evidences indicate that the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the human GC-C gene is different from that of the corresponding medaka fish GC gene; the human GC-C gene is regulated by Cdx2 and/or HNF-4, and the medaka fish OlGC6 gene is regulated by OlPC4, which is a medaka fish homologue of the mammalian transcriptional positive co-factor 4 (PC4). Furthermore, the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the OlGC9 gene is different from those of both the OlGC6 and human GC-C genes, indicating that the study on these two medaka fish GCs will be useful for further understanding of the STa/guanylin receptor type membrane GC in the vertebrates.