Gene targeting in mice: functional analysis of the mammalian genome for the twenty-first century

Nat Rev Genet. 2005 Jun;6(6):507-12. doi: 10.1038/nrg1619.


Gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells has become the 'gold standard' for determining gene function in mammals. Since its inception, this technology has revolutionized the study of mammalian biology and human medicine. Here I provide a personal account of the work that led to the generation of gene targeting which now lies at the centre of functional genomic analysis.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Embryo, Mammalian / cytology
  • Gene Targeting / history*
  • Genome
  • Genomics / history*
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, 21st Century
  • Mice / genetics*
  • Recombination, Genetic
  • Stem Cells