A critical analysis of the Brazilian response to HIV/AIDS: lessons learned for controlling and mitigating the epidemic in developing countries

Am J Public Health. 2005 Jul;95(7):1162-72. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.054593. Epub 2005 Jun 2.


The Brazilian National AIDS Program is widely recognized as the leading example of an integrated HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment program in a developing country. We critically analyze the Brazilian experience, distinguishing those elements that are unique to Brazil from the programmatic and policy decisions that can aid the development of similar programs in other low- and middle-income and developing countries.Among the critical issues that are discussed are human rights and solidarity, the interface of politics and public health, sexuality and culture, the integration of prevention and treatment, the transition from an epidemic rooted among men who have sex with men to one that increasingly affects women, and special prevention and treatment programs for injection drug users.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome* / mortality
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome* / transmission
  • Adult
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Developing Countries*
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Human Rights
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Public Health*
  • Sex Distribution


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents