Digital simultaneous fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, autofluorescence, and red-free imaging with a solid-state laser-based confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope

Retina. 2005 Jun;25(4):405-16. doi: 10.1097/00006982-200506000-00003.


Purpose: To describe and to evaluate a novel confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) for fluorescence angiography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and red-free imaging.

Methods: Digital infrared, red-free, FAF, fluorescein, and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography images were obtained with a cSLO in 766 patients. An optically pumped solid-state laser generates the excitation wavelength (488 nm) required for red-free, FAF, and fluorescein angiography images. For ICG angiography and infrared imaging, diode laser sources at 790 and 820 nm are used. Further features include an internal fixation control and a focus range of -24 to +30 diopters.

Results: High-image quality is achieved with a resolution of up to 5 microm per pixel in 30- x 30-degree images and allows for accurate delineation of normal and pathologic features. Simultaneous angiography offers high-contrast images. Corresponding display of quasi-simultaneous frames facilitates interpretation. A small focus difference between fluorescein and ICG scans occurs because of chromatic aberrations. Automated alignment and generation of mean images from several single frames allow for acquisition of high-resolution FAF images.

Conclusion: Various laser-source related, optical, and electronic innovations improve cSLO fundus imaging for routine clinical application. A solid-state laser has advantages compared to argon gas laser sources, including less space occupation, heat emission, and noise production.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Choroid / blood supply
  • Choroid Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Coloring Agents*
  • Female
  • Fluorescein Angiography / methods*
  • Fluorescence
  • Humans
  • Indocyanine Green*
  • Lasers
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ophthalmoscopy / methods*
  • Photography / methods*
  • Retinal Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Retinal Vessels / pathology


  • Coloring Agents
  • Indocyanine Green