The occurrence of chronic sleep deprivation in the population is commonplace. Both duration and quality of sleep are important to assess when evaluating a patient who has sleep complaints. Excessive sleepiness and decreased psychomotor performance have been demonstrated after sleep deprivation. Sleep loss may impact mood, autonomic function, and the immune system. Sleep-deprived adults may have impaired job performance and are prone to motor vehicle accidents. Simple interventions to ensure adequate sleep can help avoid these hazards.