Fanconi anemia (FA) is a recessive cancer prone syndrome featuring bone marrow failure and hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinks. Nine FA genes have been isolated so far. The biochemical function(s) of the FA proteins remain(s) poorly determined. However, a large consensus exists on the evidence that, to cope with DNA cross-links, a cell needs a functional FA pathway. In this review, we resume current understanding of how the FA pathway works in response to DNA damage and how it is integrated in a complex network of proteins involved in the maintenance of the genetic stability.