The complex between tPA and PAI-1: risk factor for myocardial infarction as studied in the SHEEP project

Thromb Res. 2005;116(3):223-32. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2004.12.007. Epub 2005 Jan 16.


Introduction: The tPA/PAI-1 complex seems to be an important biochemical marker for myocardial reinfarction. Therefore we explored the distribution, correlation and interaction of plasma concentrations of tPA/PAI-1 complex in all available patients and matched controls in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP).

Methods and patients: The SHEEP study is a case control study of 2246 patients with a first myocardial infarction (MI), of which 1267 surviving patients were subjected to blood sampling about 3 months after MI and compared with a control group, matched for age, sex and living area within the Stockholm County. The study consists of 886 (591 men and 295 women) patients and 1198 (753 men and 445 women) matched controls, who were all analysed for plasma tPA/PAI-1 complex.

Results: The plasma concentration of tPA/PAI-1 complex was significantly associated with the risk for MI, for both genders. Synergistic interactions were observed in men for the co exposure to high plasma tPA/PAI-1 complex concentrations in combination with smoking (OR=4.6) or diabetes mellitus (OR=7.9). Synergism was also seen in combination with exposure to serum hypercholesterolemia or increased levels of apolipoprotein B. An antagonistic effect of the co exposure to high tPA/PAI-1 complex and hypertension was found among men with a similar tendency among women, but an antagonistic effect of increased waist/hip ratio was only observed among the women.

Conclusions: Measuring the plasma concentration of tPA/PAI-1 complex might be of practical value in assessing risk of MI for both genders, especially in those who are smokers or in patients with manifest diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Myocardial Infarction / blood
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology
  • Myocardial Infarction / etiology*
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / metabolism*
  • Protein Binding
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking
  • Sweden / epidemiology
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator / metabolism*


  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator