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Comparative Study
. 2005 Jun 14;102(24):8436-41.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.0503469102. Epub 2005 Jun 3.

Anthropoid Primates From the Oligocene of Pakistan (Bugti Hills): Data on Early Anthropoid Evolution and Biogeography

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Free PMC article
Comparative Study

Anthropoid Primates From the Oligocene of Pakistan (Bugti Hills): Data on Early Anthropoid Evolution and Biogeography

Laurent Marivaux et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Asian tarsiid and sivaladapid primates maintained relictual distributions in southern Asia long after the extirpation of their close Holarctic relatives near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. We report here the discovery of amphipithecid and eosimiid primates from Oligocene coastal deposits in Pakistan that demonstrate that stem anthropoids also survived in southern Asia beyond the climatic deterioration that characterized the Eocene-Oligocene transition. These fossils provide data on temporal and paleobiogeographic aspects of early anthropoid evolution and significantly expand the record of stem anthropoid evolution in the Paleogene of South Asia.

Figures

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.
Map of the Bugti Hills (central Pakistan, eastern Balochistan) showing the geographic location of the primate-bearing locality of Paali Nala (DBC2, denoted by an asterisk) in the lowermost part of the Chitarwata Formation (Oligocene, Bugti Member) (21). The locality is situated in the South Gandoï syncline (southern side of the Zin anticline), ≈30 km from the village of Dera Bugti.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.
Amphipithecidae from Paali Nala DBC2. Bugtipithecus inexpectans gen. sp. nov.: UMC-DBC 2175, right M3: buccal (A), occlusal (D), and lingual (G) views; UMC-DBC 2177, right M1: buccal (B), occlusal (E), and lingual (H) views; UMC-DBC 2178, left P4: buccal (C), occlusal (F), lingual (I), and mesial (L) views; UMC-DBC 2174, right M1 [holotype]: occlusal (J), and buccal (M) views; UMC-DBC 2173, left M2: occlusal view (K); UMC-DBC 2191, left P4: occlusal (N), and mesial (O) views. (Scale bar, 1 mm.) Drawings are from L. Meslin (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.
Eosimiidae from Paali Nala DBC2. Phileosimias kamali gen. sp. nov.: UMC-DBC 2199, right M1 [holotype]: buccal (A), and occlusal (F) views; UMC-DBC 2197, left M2: buccal (B), and occlusal (G) views; UMC-DBC 2198, left M3: buccal (C), and occlusal (H) views; UMC-DBC 2204, left P4: buccal (K), occlusal (O), lingual (S), and mesial (W) views; UMC-DBC 2206, left M1: buccal (L), occlusal (P), and lingual (T) views; UMC-DBC 2207, left M2: buccal (M), occlusal (Q), and lingual (U) views; UMC-DBC 2208, right M3: buccal (N), occlusal (R), and lingual (V) views; UMC-DBC 2203, right P3: lingual (X), and occlusal (Y) views. Phileosimias brahuiorum gen. sp. nov.: UMC-DBC 2221, right M2: buccal (D), and occlusal (I) views; UMC-DBC 2220, right M3: buccal (E), and occlusal (J) views. (Scale bar, 1 mm.) Drawings are from L. Meslin (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.
Results of phylogenetic analyses. Only simplified high-level trees of strict consensus are presented here, showing the main dichotomies among higher taxonomic primate groups (see supporting information). (A) Strict consensus of two equally most-parsimonious trees of 2,810 steps each [consistency index (CI) = 0.273; retention index (RI) = 0.53] obtained from heuristic searches performed on the dataset including some ordered multistate characters (Option 1). (B) Strict consensus of 38 equally most-parsimonious trees of 2,646 steps each (CI = 0.289; RI = 0.51) obtained from heuristic searches made on the same dataset but considering all characters unordered (Option 2).

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