Background: Use of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 [Prevnar]) has been associated with decreased a incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children in the United States.
Methods: Cases of IPD in children < 18 years of age insured by or receiving health care from Intermountain Health Care during 1996-2003 were identified. Isolates of S. pneumoniae from children with IPD treated at Primary Children's Medical Center (PCMC; Salt Lake City, UT) during 1997-2003 were serogrouped. Temporal trends of IPD, serogroup distribution of pneumococci, and antibiotic resistance among pneumococci were analyzed.
Results: A total of 1535 cases of IPD were identified. The rate of IPD decreased 27% after the introduction of PCV7. Among children with IPD who were cared for at PCMC, disease in 73% was caused by PCV7 serogroups in 1997-2000, compared with 50% in 2001-2003 (P < .001), and the percentage of isolates resistant to penicillin decreased from 34% in 1997-2000 to 22% in 2001-2003 (P = .04). The percentage of IPD cases that were empyema increased from 16% to 30% (P = .015), and the percentage of severe cases of IPD increased from 57% to 71% (P = .026). Children with IPD due to non-PCV7 serogroups were older, were more likely to have parapneumonic empyema, and had longer hospital stays.
Conclusions: The incidence of IPD in the IMW decreased by 27% after the introduction of the PCV7 vaccine. During the postvaccine period (2001-2003), there were significant decreases in the proportion of cases of IPD caused by PCV7 and antibiotic-resistant serogroups. These benefits were accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of IPD cases due to non-PCV7 serogroups, with increases in the incidence of empyema and severe IPD.