Background: To facilitate the design of strategies for prevention of invasive aspergillosis in solid-organ transplant recipients, this study investigates whether the development of early-onset and late-onset aspergillosis are related to different risk factors, thereby distinguishing 2 risk populations for this serious complication.
Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed, including 156 cases of proven or probable invasive aspergillosis in patients recruited from 11 Spanish centers since the start of the centers' transplantation programs.
Results: Among all patients, 57% had early-onset IA (i.e., occurred during the first 3 months after transplantation). Risk factor analysis in this group identified as significantly associated risk factors a more complicated postoperative period, repeated bacterial infections or cytomegalovirus disease, and renal failure or the need for dialysis. Among patients with late-onset infections (i.e., occurred > 3 months after transplantation), who comprised 43% of cases, the patients at risk were older, were in an overimmunosuppressed state because of chronic transplant rejection or allograft dysfunction, and had posttransplantation renal failure.
Conclusions: Risk factors in patients with early-onset cases and patients with late-onset cases of posttransplantation invasive aspergillosis are not the same, a fact that could have implications for the preventive approaches used for this infection.