Over the last decade, several studies have highlighted the value of ultrasonography for both clinical and research purposes in rheumatology. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, inexpensive and free-of-radiation-hazards imaging technique providing quick and useful information for the management of rheumatic diseases. Considerable evidence supporting the role of ultrasonography in rheumatological clinical practice has led many rheumatologists to want to become experienced with this imaging technique. The main indications of ultrasonography in rheumatology include the evaluation of patients with regional pain syndromes and chronic arthritis, short-term therapy monitoring and guidance for invasive procedures. Ultrasonography's long learning curve is the main obstacle that hinders its widespread use in rheumatology. Many technical aspects may affect the scanning process and a correct interpretation of sonographic images depends on several elements such as a deep knowledge of ultrasonography anatomy and pathology.