Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;62(6):629-40. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.629.


Background: Dramatic changes have occurred in mental health treatments during the past decade. Data on recent treatment patterns are needed to estimate the unmet need for services.

Objective: To provide data on patterns and predictors of 12-month mental health treatment in the United States from the recently completed National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

Design and setting: Nationally representative face-to-face household survey using a fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, carried out between February 5, 2001, and April 7, 2003.

Participants: A total of 9282 English-speaking respondents 18 years and older.

Main outcome measures: Proportions of respondents with 12-month DSM-IV anxiety, mood, impulse control, and substance disorders who received treatment in the 12 months before the interview in any of 4 service sectors (specialty mental health, general medical, human services, and complementary and alternative medicine). Number of visits and proportion of patients who received minimally adequate treatment were also assessed.

Results: Of 12-month cases, 41.1% received some treatment in the past 12 months, including 12.3% treated by a psychiatrist, 16.0% treated by a non-psychiatrist mental health specialist, 22.8% treated by a general medical provider, 8.1% treated by a human services provider, and 6.8% treated by a complementary and alternative medical provider (treatment could be received by >1 source). Overall, cases treated in the mental health specialty sector received more visits (median, 7.4) than those treated in the general medical sector (median, 1.7). More patients in specialty than general medical treatment also received treatment that exceeded a minimal threshold of adequacy (48.3% vs 12.7%). Unmet need for treatment is greatest in traditionally underserved groups, including elderly persons, racial-ethnic minorities, those with low incomes, those without insurance, and residents of rural areas.

Conclusions: Most people with mental disorders in the United States remain either untreated or poorly treated. Interventions are needed to enhance treatment initiation and quality.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Comorbidity
  • Complementary Therapies / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Health Services Accessibility / statistics & numerical data
  • Health Services Needs and Demand
  • Health Services Research / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Internal Medicine / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Mental Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Mental Disorders / therapy*
  • Mental Health Services / statistics & numerical data*
  • Middle Aged
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Prevalence
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / statistics & numerical data
  • Psychiatry / statistics & numerical data
  • Quality of Health Care
  • United States / epidemiology