We report the case of a boy whose karyotype at birth showed additional material on one chromosome 15. He underwent treatment for unilateral nephroblastoma at 6 years old. At 23 years old, he presented with body asymmetry, facial dysmorphism, arachnodactyly, severe scoliosis, and mental retardation. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes demonstrated a complex mosaic with three clones. A major cell lineage (68%) showed a chromosome 15 with additional material fused to its telomere long arm that was constituted by an inverted duplicated 15q24.3-qter segment. Therefore, the resulting add(15)(q) harbored an intrachromosomal triplication with the middle segment being inverted in orientation. A minor cell lineage (7%) showed an abnormal chromosome 3 resulting from a telomeric fusion between its short arm and an inverted duplicated 15q24.3-qter segment. The third cell lineage (25%) showed a normal 46,XY constitution. Finally, this resulted in tetrasomy for the distal 15q24.3-qter region in 75% of the patient's lymphocytes. To our knowledge, distal 15q tetrasomy is rare and only eight cases have been reported in the literature, all due to a supernumerary analphoid marker consisting of an inverted duplication. We report here the first observation of distal 15q tetrasomy associated with a 46 chromosomes constitution. We compare the phenotype of our patient to previous cases of distal tetrasomy 15q and discuss the mechanisms underlying this chromosomal rearrangement.
Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.