Elicitor-triggered transient membrane potential changes and Ca2+ influx through the plasma membrane are thought to be important during defense signaling in plants. However, the molecular bases for the Ca2+ influx and its regulation remain largely unknown. Here we tested effects of overexpression as well as retrotransposon (Tos17)-insertional mutagenesis of the rice two-pore channel 1 (OsTPC1), a putative voltage-gated Ca(2+)-permeable channel, on a proteinaceous fungal elicitor-induced defense responses in rice cells. The overexpressor showed enhanced sensitivity to the elicitor to induce oxidative burst, activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), OsMPK2, as well as hypersensitive cell death. On the contrary, a series of defense responses including the cell death and activation of the MAPK were severely suppressed in the insertional mutant, which was complemented by overexpression of the wild-type gene. These results suggest that the putative Ca(2+)-permeable channel determines sensitivity to the elicitor and plays a role as a key regulator of elicitor-induced defense responses, activation of MAPK cascade and hypersensitive cell death.