Ninety-six patients who had undergone single-plate Molteno implantation for glaucomas with poor surgical prognoses were re-evaluated for long-term results. Control of intraocular pressure was achieved with one single-plate implant to a level less than 22 mmHg (but greater than 5 mmHg) without reoperation or devastating complications in 46% of the aphakic/pseudophakic eyes, 25% of eyes after failed filters, 25% of eyes with neovascular glaucomas, and 26% of eyes in patients younger than 13 years of age (life-table analysis at 5 years). Five-year success rates improved to 53%, 71%, 40%, and 56%, respectively, when data from second plates were included. Visual acuities improved or remained the same after one or two plates were implanted in 47% of aphakic/pseudophakic eyes, 17% of eyes after failed filters, 65% of eyes with neovascular glaucomas, and 63% of eyes in patients younger than 13 years of age on whom Snellen acuity was available. The most frequent overall complications after implantation of one or two plates included: corneal edema (19%), corneal graft decompensation (13%), and cornea-tube touch, retinal detachment, and cataract (8% each).