Pars plana vitrectomy with separation of the posterior hyaloid was performed in 10 eyes with diabetic macular edema and traction associated with a thickened and taut premacular posterior hyaloid. Nine of the 10 eyes had previous macular photocoagulation. Preoperative fluorescein angiography showed a deep and diffuse pattern of leakage in the macula. Intraoperatively, the attached and thickened posterior hyaloid was lifted and separated from the retina. Postoperatively, vision improved in nine eyes. The macular traction and edema resolved in eight eyes and decreased in two. Complications included a vitreous hemorrhage, a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, cataract formation, and a mild epimacular membrane, each occurring in one eye. Vitreous surgery can improve the visual prognosis of some eyes with diabetic macular traction and edema associated with a thickened and taut posterior hyaloid.