Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 replication and disease progression are enhanced by various pathogens in coinfected individuals. However, acute infection with measles virus (MV) has been found to suppress HIV-1 replication in coinfected children. We investigated the mechanisms of this phenomenon using human lymphoid tissues coinfected ex vivo with HIV-1 and MV. MV inhibited both CXCR4-tropic (X4) and CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1, but the inhibitory effect was particularly profound for R5 virus, which transmits infection and dominates the early stages of HIV-1 disease. MV inhibits the replication of R5 HIV-1 in coinfected tissues by up-regulation of the CC chemokine RANTES, a well-known inhibitor of R5 HIV-1 infection, and this up-regulation is augmented in tissues coinfected with R5 HIV-1. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms by which MV and other pathogens alter local cytokine/chemokine networks and cause tissue microenvironments to become detrimental to HIV-1 may significantly contribute to the development of effective anti-HIV therapies.