The chromosomal region 19q13 has been found in linkage to allergic diseases in several genome-wide linkage screens. One candidate gene within this region is the gene coding for TGF-beta1. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta acts as an anti-inflammatory cytokine suppressing allergic inflammation and hyper-reactivity. However, in ongoing inflammation of the lungs it can induce fibrosis and airway remodelling as seen in chronic asthma. Several polymorphisms within TGF-beta1 have been identified and one, -C509T, has been shown to be in association with elevated immunoglobulin E levels and severe bronchial asthma in different populations. However, other studies failed to confirm the association. The present study investigated two polymorphisms within the gene coding for TGF-beta1, -C509T and G915C, and for their potential association with bronchial asthma in Caucasian children. Genotyping of these polymorphisms was performed by means of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in a population of 231 asthmatic children and a control population of 269 individuals. Statistical analyses made use of the Armitage's trend test. In addition haplotypes were calculated by arlequin. None of the two polymorphisms showed association with bronchial asthma. They were found to be in linkage disequilibrium. We conclude from our data that TGF-beta1 is unlikely to represent a major gene in the development of bronchial asthma in the Caucasian population.