In vitro and in vivo immune stimulating effects of a new standardized Echinacea angustifolia root extract (Polinacea)

Fitoterapia. 2005 Jul;76(5):401-11. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2005.02.001.


Polinacea is a new standardized hydroethanolic extract obtained from Echinacea angustifolia roots containing echinacoside (>4%), the high molecular weight polysaccharide IDN 5405 (>5%) and a isobutylamide fraction (<0.1%). For in vitro tests, a bacterial lipopolysaccharide-free (LPS-free) Polinacea has been prepared in order to avoid non-specific responses of immunocompetent cells. LPS-free Polinacea enhanced the immune functions as highlighted by the proliferation rate and gamma-interferon production in murine T-lymphocyte cell cultures stimulated by anti-CD3. LPS-free Polinacea did not have a direct role on macrophage response as measured in the nitric oxide production test using the J774 macrophage cells line. In vivo, Polinacea showed an immune stimulating activity by reducing the Candida albicans induced mortality both in normal and in cyclosporin A-treated mice.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Candida albicans / immunology
  • Candida albicans / pathogenicity
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Echinacea*
  • Female
  • Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Macrophage Activation / drug effects
  • Macrophages / drug effects*
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Plant Roots
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Interferon-gamma