A prospective cohort study of adult patients hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia was carried out for 1 year in a Brazilian university general hospital to detect the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia by Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1-6. During a whole year, a total of 645 consecutive patients who were hospitalized due to a initial presumptive diagnosis of respiratory disease by ICD-10 (J00-J99), excluding upper respiratory diseases, were screened to detect the patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Fifty-nine consecutive patients hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia between July 19, 2000 and July 18, 2001, were included in the study. They had determinations of serum antibodies to L. pneumophila serogroups 1-6 by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test at the Infectious Diseases Laboratory of University of Louisville (KY, USA) and urinary antigen tests for L. pneumophila serogroup 1. Three patients had community-acquired pneumonia by L. pneumophila serogroups 1-6, two patients being diagnosed by seroconversion and positive urinary antigen tests; the other had negative serologies but strongly positive urinary antigen test. The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia by L. pneumophila serogroups 1-6 in our hospital was 5.1%.