Cellular and molecular mechanisms of sex differences in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

Cardiovasc Res. 2005 Sep 1;67(4):594-603. doi: 10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.05.005.


Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is an important etiopathological mechanism of acute renal failure (ARF). Despite improvements in the treatment of ARF, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. I/R injury also occurs during renal transplantation and leads to reduced allograft survival. Sex differences have been found in I/R injury in many different organs including the kidney. Women have half the mortality of men in ARF. In animal models also, females are protected against renal I/R injury. The mechanisms by which sex affects the outcome to renal I/R injury are being actively investigated. This review will examine the evidence for gender differences in renal I/R injury and discuss the probable mechanisms by which sex affects the renal response to I/R injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Graft Rejection
  • Kidney / blood supply*
  • Kidney Transplantation*
  • Reperfusion Injury / metabolism*
  • Sex Characteristics*
  • Transplantation, Homologous