Pathogen recognition with Toll-like receptors

Curr Opin Immunol. 2005 Aug;17(4):338-44. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2005.02.007.


The innate immune system is an evolutionarily conserved system of defense against microbial infections. The family of Toll-like receptors is a major class of receptors that sense molecular patterns associated with a broad range of pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Following pathogen recognition, Toll-like receptors initiate intracellular signal transduction that results in the expression of genes involved in inflammation, antiviral responses and maturation of dendritic cells. Individual Toll-like receptors activate common and unique transcription factors through different signaling pathways to drive specific biological responses against microorganisms.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology*
  • Infections / immunology*
  • Infections / microbiology
  • Infections / parasitology
  • Infections / virology
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / immunology*
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / immunology*
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Toll-Like Receptors


  • Cytokines
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Toll-Like Receptors