Development of a questionnaire to measure heart disease risk knowledge in people with diabetes: the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire

Patient Educ Couns. 2005 Jul;58(1):82-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2004.07.004.


This paper describes a paper and pencil questionnaire that measures heart disease risk knowledge in people with diabetes. The Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire (HDFQ) is a 25-item questionnaire that was developed to tap into respondents' knowledge of major risk factors for the development of CHD. Approximately half of these items specifically address diabetes-related CHD risk factors. Based on extensive pilot data, the current study analyzed responses from 524 people with diabetes to assess the psychometric properties. The HDFQ is readable to an average 13-year old and imposes little burden. It shows good content and face validity. It demonstrates adequate internal consistency, with Kuder-Richardson-20 formula = 0.77 and good item-total correlations. Item analysis showed a desirable range in P-values. In discriminant function analyses, HDFQ scores differentiated respondents by knowledge of their own cardiovascular health, use of lipid lowering medications, health insurance status, and educational attainment, thus indicating good criterion related validity. This measure of heart disease risk knowledge is brief, understandable to respondents, and easy to administer and score. Its potential for use in research and practice is discussed. Future research should establish norms as well as investigate its test-retest reliability and predictive validity.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Coronary Disease / epidemiology
  • Coronary Disease / etiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Education as Topic / statistics & numerical data*
  • Probability
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • United States / epidemiology