BMP antagonists: their roles in development and involvement in pathophysiology

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2005 Jun;16(3):309-17. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2005.02.007.


Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are phylogenetically conserved signaling molecules that belong to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily, and are involved in the cascades of body patterning and morphogenesis. The activities of BMPs are precisely regulated by certain classes of molecules that are recently recognized as BMP antagonists. BMP antagonists function through direct association with BMPs, thus prohibiting BMPs from binding their cognate receptors. In this review, the classification and functions of BMP antagonists will be discussed, especially focusing on the new family of tissue-specific BMP antagonists composed of uterine sensitization-associated gene 1 (USAG-1) and sclerostin.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Animals
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / classification
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / metabolism
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Embryonic Development
  • Genetic Markers
  • Glycoproteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Pathology
  • Proteins / metabolism


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Genetic Markers
  • Glycoproteins
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Proteins
  • SOST protein, human
  • SOSTDC1 protein, human
  • noggin protein
  • chordin