Smoking and Helicobacter pylori infection in a sample of U.S. adults

Epidemiology. 2005 Jul;16(4):586-90. doi: 10.1097/01.ede.0000165365.52904.4a.


Background: Although the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection has been assessed in the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), its possible relation with smoking has not been fully explored.

Methods: We used the 1999-2000 NHANES data to examine whether smoking affects the prevalence of H. pylori infection in adults (n = 3689). The prevalence of H. pylori infection, as assessed by anti-H. pylori IgG enzyme-linked immunoassay, was computed according to smoking history and levels of serum cotinine.

Results: Current smoking was associated with an increased prevalence of H. pylori infection (prevalence odds ratio =1.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.4-2.5) after controlling for possible confounders. Current smoking, as measured by increased serum cotinine, was also associated with an increased prevalence of H. pylori infection (1.6; 1.3-2.0). There was no evidence of a dose-response relation.

Conclusions: Smoking may contribute to the persistence of H. pylori infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Cotinine / blood
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Helicobacter Infections / epidemiology*
  • Helicobacter pylori / pathogenicity*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Prevalence
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Smoking / blood
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Cotinine