Use of human tissue to assess the oncogenic activity of melanoma-associated mutations

Nat Genet. 2005 Jul;37(7):745-9. doi: 10.1038/ng1586. Epub 2005 Jun 12.

Abstract

Multiple genetic alterations occur in melanoma, a lethal skin malignancy of increasing incidence. These include mutations that activate Ras and two of its effector cascades, Raf and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Induction of Ras and Raf can be caused by active N-Ras and B-Raf mutants as well as by gene amplification. Activation of PI3K pathway components occurs by PTEN loss and by AKT3 amplification. Melanomas also commonly show impairment of the p16(INK4A)-CDK4-Rb and ARF-HDM2-p53 tumor suppressor pathways. CDKN2A mutations can produce p16(INK4A) and ARF protein loss. Rb bypass can also occur through activating CDK4 mutations as well as by CDK4 amplification. In addition to ARF deletion, p53 pathway disruption can result from dominant negative TP53 mutations. TERT amplification also occurs in melanoma. The extent to which these mutations can induce human melanocytic neoplasia is unknown. Here we characterize pathways sufficient to generate human melanocytic neoplasia and show that genetically altered human tissue facilitates functional analysis of mutations observed in human tumors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / biosynthesis
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics
  • Genes, ras
  • Humans
  • Melanocytes / metabolism
  • Melanoma / genetics*
  • Melanoma / metabolism
  • Melanoma / pathology
  • Mice
  • Mice, SCID
  • Mutation*
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / biosynthesis
  • Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • Skin / metabolism
  • Skin / pathology*
  • Skin Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • Telomerase / biosynthesis
  • Telomerase / genetics
  • Transplants
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

Substances

  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • CDK4 protein, human
  • Cdk4 protein, mouse
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
  • TERT protein, human
  • Telomerase
  • Tert protein, mouse
  • Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases
  • PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • PTEN protein, human